Early fault detection in wind turbines using the widely available SCADA data has been receiving growing interest due to its cost-effectiveness. As opposed to the large variety of fault detection methods based on high resolusion vibration data, the use of 10-minute SCADA data alone does not require any additional hardware or data storage solutions and would be immediately implementable in most wind farms. However, the strong variability of these data is challenging and requires significant improvements of existing methods to ensure early and reliable fault detection and isolation. Here we suggest to use Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to enhance the detection accuracy and robustness. We demonstrate the superiority of the CNN model over standard fully connected neural networks (FCNN) using examples for faults with very different time dependent characteristics: an abruptly evolving and a slowly degrading fault. We show that the CNN is able to detect the faults earlier and with a higher accuracy and robustness of prediction than the FCNN model. We then extend the CNN model to a multi-output CNN (CNNm) which provides early fault detection based on a multitude of output variables simultaneously. We show that with the same training time and a similar detection quality as the single output CNN, the CNNm model is an ideal candidate for a practical and scalable fault detection algorithm based on already available 10-minute SCADA data for wind turbines.
Fault detection, Fault diagnostics, PHM, Wind turbine, SCADA data, Convolutional Neural Networks, sensitivity analysis
The Prognostic and Health Management Society advocates open-access to scientific data and uses a Creative Commons license for publishing and distributing any papers. A Creative Commons license does not relinquish the author’s copyright; rather it allows them to share some of their rights with any member of the public under certain conditions whilst enjoying full legal protection. By submitting an article to the International Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, the authors agree to be bound by the associated terms and conditions including the following:
As the author, you retain the copyright to your Work. By submitting your Work, you are granting anybody the right to copy, distribute and transmit your Work and to adapt your Work with proper attribution under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States license. You assign rights to the Prognostics and Health Management Society to publish and disseminate your Work through electronic and print media if it is accepted for publication. A license note citing the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License as shown below needs to be placed in the footnote on the first page of the article.
First Author et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.